美国教授工资与他拿到的FUNDs有关

工资在美国科研经费里是怎样回扣的 精选
已有 10530 次阅读 2010-10-4 21:41 |个人分类:政策评论|系统分类:科研笔记|关键词:科研经费,经费分配,工资,回扣| 工资, 科研经费, 回扣, 经费分配

看到有朋友在评语中讲到国内经费可以按百分比回扣来作为工资。这里我谈一谈 我所知道的关于在美国科研经费里工资是怎样回扣的,如有错误的地方,请大家指正。
美国科研经费里工资的回扣是根据审请人的原来的工资来定的。所以审阅的人往往可以知道全国各地的工资了。如果你是九个月的工资,你可以理直气壮地要求一到三个月的工资(美国NSF一个项目好象最多只能要两个月)。美国NIH就非常宽松了。你在申请时要报上你在这个项目上准备花的时间比例(Percent of Effort)。你可以根据这个比例乘上工资来报预算。项目到手后,这部分工资可直接划入你的系里。一般,系或医学院会要求你能至少上交他们给你工资的一定比例(名医学院如哈佛75%甚至100%)。如果有余额,你可以把这些钱用于科研但不能用于自己的工资。有时,系里会批准用这个钱给你作为临时工资来奖励你搞经费的能力。一般这在你有了两个或两个以上的NIH的大笔经费才有可能。所以说医学院的系主任权力特别大。但最多也就奖10-15%罢了。所以,就我所知,NIH经费里的工资预算主要是用于还给学校在你身上的投资。假如你不能满足所要求上交工资的比例怎么办?助理教授前三年的工资(或暑假工资)是靠启动经费保证的。过了三年,还没有拿到经费的话,系主任给你的压力就会非常大。 我的第一笔NIH经费是到学校后的第三学年底才拿到的,所以有亲身体会。已经有了终身教授的、拿九个月的工资的,没有科研经费意味着你就失去了暑假工资。而拿了十二月工资的,你的命运就由具体学校的规定来决定了。公立大学可能问题不大。好的私立大学会给一到三年的支持到你拿到新的经费。所以,在医学院搞经费的压力特别大。我知道的一个常在Nature和Science上发文章的牛人,在有了一次没有经费短暂的经历之后,就去了加拿大。简短地来说,美国科研经费不容易拿,而回扣有各种限制。

是这样的。美国教授工资与他拿到的FUNDs有关,拿到的经费如何分配也各不相同,学校肯定是要拿一定比例的,有些经费还规定要支付几个研究生RA工资,但有些经费会给教授有较大收益,一些教授也兼职,也有自己有公司的,也可以拥有学校的股份,甚至学校的某个实验室就是他的。

在中国学者的想象之中,美国的经费很多,很容易申请到,花不完。事实上我了解的是,甚至比中国还难申请。举一个例子。我的科研同行,Illnois大学化学系的K S Suslick是国际超声波化学的权威,1983年获得NSF资助,才34万美元,按实际的购买力计算,只相当于目前中国NSFC的一个自由申请的所谓面上项目的经费,但是,从1983-1989年,此人用这些经费在Nature, Science发表论文9篇,JACS, JPC发表论文超过20篇。目前中国投资3-4千万元的所谓973项目也远远达不到如此论文发表水平。美国的科研经费使用效率极高,这才是根本。因为有了一流的人才,严格的淘汰制度,才保证基础研究的活力。

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