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智慧城市大数据分析 莫纯欢
第一部分 智慧城市大数据分析的应用
。智慧交通:分析出租车乘客的上下车记录,提供了面向司机和乘客的双向推荐服务,从而解决打车难问题。
。智慧环境:感知整个城市不同角落的温度、湿度和二氧化碳浓度。
。基于位置的服务(Location-basedService,LBS)利用无线移动网络、Internet、移动终端等技术平台将人类的生活与空间
信息更加密切的结合。
移动位置业务的应用:公共安全业务、跟踪业务、基于位置的信息服务、导航服务,提供娱乐消息、交通报告、地图和向
导、目标广告、交互式游戏、远程信息处理等服务。
。在线家教:地理匹配问题能够很轻松发现身边的老师,学生和家长可以通过家教在线平台把老师请回家。
。基于位置的社交网络的推荐系统: 朋友推荐、社区推荐、地点推荐、旅行线路推荐和行为活动推荐。
通过网民在社交网络中发布的信息来预测总统选举结 果、疾病蔓延和房价走势,发现异常事件和灾难,分析交通流
量,设计广告推送和商业选址。通过社交媒体还能分析 一个城市的风格以及不同城市之间的相似性。
个性化推荐指的是根据用户的兴趣特点和购买行为,向用户推荐用户感兴趣的信息和商品,帮助用户从浩瀚的信息海
洋中找到自己感兴趣的部分, 实现了互联网中的信息从被动接收到主动推送的过程。而协同过滤作为推荐系统中最为成
功和研究最多的算法之一, 其基本思想是根据用户兴趣的相似性来进行推荐,把与当前用户相似性最大的用户找出来
并作为邻居用户, 然后将邻居用户兴趣进行计算和加权作为当前用户的兴趣并产生推荐。
。应急响应: 分析北京3万多辆出租车的轨迹来发现城市中的异常事件,从相关的微博中提取关键词来解释异常的原
因,如婚博会、道路坍塌等。 分析160 万日本人一年的GPS 移动轨迹数据库来对日本大地震和福岛核事故发生后的灾
民移动、避难行为进行建模、预测和模拟。这样日后 再有类似事件发生时,便可从之前的灾难中吸取经验,提前做好
准备,为人们推荐合理的撤退线路。
。城市经济:分析决定土地价格的因素、土地使用限制对经济的影响,公司选址和人们选择住宅的位置对周边未来经
济的影响等。 分析大量用户的签到数据为商业选址提供位置建议。比如,要开设一个新的麦当劳餐厅, 什么地方是最
理想的位置。结合道路结构、兴趣点分布、人口流动等诸多因素来对屋的价值排序。 即在市场向好时,哪些小区的房
价将会涨得更多;市场下行时,哪些小区的房价比较抗跌。 与使用传统经济学模型不同,以上这两个例子采用了机器
学习算法和数据驱动的方法。

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第二部分 智慧城市用到的实现技术 莫纯欢
2.1 感知技术 。温度传感器、位置传感器、交通流线圈、空气质量监测仪等之间的互联互通。 。蜂窝移动通信系统和公交卡系统为城市计算提供了良好的感知平台:分析大量用户的地铁刷卡数据就能掌握城市的 人口流动规律。

2.3混合数据的可视化技术
2.3 优化技术 向出租车司机推荐最优的乘客寻找路线。
2.4 数据库技术
。轨迹数据(即带有时间戳并按时间排序的点序列)。在城市计算中经常会用到轨迹处理技术,如地图匹配算法、轨 迹压缩、轨迹搜索、轨迹频繁模式挖掘等。
。时空索引:空间和时间是城市计算中最常用的两个数据维度,各种空间索引和时空索引都是常用技术。
。数据的稀疏性: -采用矩阵分解算法和协同过滤。城市油耗估计就是利用这种方法来解决数据稀疏性问题的。
-基于相似性的聚类算法。计算不同道路之间的相似性,从而对道路进行聚类。这样被分在同一个类里的道路很可能具 有相同的车流模式。于是,在一个类中, 将有传感器道路的读数赋给那些没有传感器的道路。 -使用半监督学习算法来弥补因空气监测站少而带来的训练样本稀疏性。
。流数据库技术feed database

流数据库所有数据都存在于在内存里,就如同数据瀑布在流动过程中,利用数据库内置模块对数据实时打上标签、归 并、分析, 使数据产生实时分析指导结果; 而在流动中打上的这些标签是为今后对数据做进一步处理,将数据进行有 序存储, 从而进一步成为不断变动的数据的存量历史经验参考依据。 流数据实时处理才是数据的核心价值。 。 地理数据:地理数据作为统一的空间定位框架和空间分析基础的地理单元载体,是城市数据的基础和关键组成部分, 包括矢量数据(地理实体 数据集、路径规划数据集等)、瓦片数据(地图瓦片、三维地形瓦片、建筑物模型瓦片等)、索引 数据(地名地址索引、公交站点索引等)、栅格数据(遥感影 像数据、数字表面模型数据等)、表格数据(属性表、统计表)

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