Best Laptops Under 200 Dollars – Top Picks


Product CPU | RAM Size | Weight
Lenovo IdeaPad 1 AMD A6-9220e 1.6GHz | 4GB 14″ | 4.4 lbs
Acer Aspire 1 (Our Top Pick) Intel Celeron N4020 1.1GHz | 4GB 14″ | 4.1 lbs
HP Stream 11 Notebook Intel Celeron N4000 1.1GHz | 4GB 11″ | 2.3 lbs
Samsung Chromebook 4 Intel Celeron N4000 1.1GHz | 4GB 11″ | 2.6 lbs
Lenovo  S330 Chromebook MediaTek 8173C 2.1GHz | 4GB 14″ | 3.2 lbs
Acer Chromebook 311 Intel Celeron N4000 1.1GHz | 4GB 11″ | 2.4 lbs
ASUS VivoBook L203MA Intel Celeron N4000 1.1 GHz | 4GB 11″ | 2.2 lbs
HP 14a-na0010nr Chromebook Intel Celeron N4000 1.1 GHz | 4GB 14″ | 3.2 lbs
ASUS C223 11″ Chromebook Intel Celeron N3350 1.1GHz | 4GB 11″ | 2.2 lbs
HP 14″ Laptop AMD Athlon 3020E 1.2 GHz | 4GB 14″ | 3.2 lbs

1. Lenovo IdeaPad 1

Lenovo IdeaPad 1

Lenovo Ideapad 1 is designed and manufactured by keeping needs and budget of everyday users in mind. It is a Windows laptop which offers reliable performance and battery life in a good looking chassis. The laptop is finished in a platinum gray color which gives this laptop a professional and stylish looks. It is less than an inch thick and also weighs around 3 pounds which makes this laptop ideal for people who travel more often.

It has a keyboard with adequately big keys to type conveniently, and it has a decent touchpad as well. It is powered by an AMD processor and 4GB of RAM. It offers 64GB of eMMC storage which can be further expanded via memory card slot.

With up to 8 hours of battery backup, this windows laptop is best option under $200 for school and college students or businesspeople.

Hardware Specifications of Lenovo IdeaPad 1 Chromebook
 Processor AMD A6-9220e 1.6 GHz Processor (Burst up to 2.4 GHz)
 Storage 64GB eMMC
 Graphics Integrated AMD Radeon R4
 Display 14.0-Inch HD Anti-Glare Screen (1366 x 768), 220 nits
 Operating System Windows 10 Home in S mode
 Battery Life Up to 8 hours
 Weight 4.4 lbs

$254.00 | Buy from Amazon

2. Acer Aspire 1 Our Top Pick

Acer Aspire 1 (2020) - best cheap laptops for students under 200 dollars

Acer Aspire 1 is a sleek-slim windows laptop packed with adequate hardware inside to carry out your daily works. From editing documents to multi-tabbed internet surfing, this Acer laptop is capable of handling all basic tasks pretty smoothly.

This laptop is finished in an black color, which makes this laptop look more stylish while its 4.1 pounds of weight makes it easier to carry and use this laptop from anywhere on the go. It has a 14-inch full HD screen which is bright and sharp enough to view everything in detail, but its webcam has sub-par video quality, and it’s only suitable for occasional video calls. It has a chiclet keyboard with separate num pad to type comfortably for long hours. Its touchpad isn’t much responsive, but it supports multi-finger gestures which makes it easy to scroll and navigate while multitasking.

This laptop gets power from the Intel Celeron N4020 dual-core processor which handles all regular works pretty smoothly on this laptop. It has 4GB of RAM to give extra smoothness to your multitasking needs, and it comes with 64GB of internal storage which can be further expanded by inserting a memory card. The Acer Aspire 1 is the best cheap laptop in $200 price range right now, so if you don’t mind spending a little over $200, then this is currently the best windows laptop you can get for yourself within your small budget.

Read our full review of 2019 Acer Aspire 1

Hardware Specifications of Acer Aspire 1


Toggle Table of Contents

CodeIgniter User Guide Version 2.2.6
Table of Contents Page

CodeIgniter Home › User Guide Home › Session Class
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Session Class

The Session class permits you maintain a user’s “state” and track their activity while they browse your site. The Session class stores session information for each user as serialized (and optionally encrypted) data in a cookie. It can also store the session data in a database table for added security, as this permits the session ID in the user’s cookie to be matched against the stored session ID. By default only the cookie is saved. If you choose to use the database option you’ll need to create the session table as indicated below.

Note: The Session class does not utilize native PHP sessions. It generates its own session data, offering more flexibility for developers.

Note: Even if you are not using encrypted sessions, you must set an encryption key in your config file which is used to aid in preventing session data manipulation.

Note: The Session class relies on the Encryption class, so you must have Mcrypt extension installed

Initializing a Session

Sessions will typically run globally with each page load, so the session class must either be initialized in your controller constructors, or it can be auto-loaded by the system. For the most part the session class will run unattended in the background, so simply initializing the class will cause it to read, create, and update sessions.

To initialize the Session class manually in your controller constructor, use the $this->load->library function:


Once loaded, the Sessions library object will be available using: $this->session

How do Sessions work?

When a page is loaded, the session class will check to see if valid session data exists in the user’s session cookie. If sessions data does not exist (or if it has expired) a new session will be created and saved in the cookie. If a session does exist, its information will be updated and the cookie will be updated. With each update, the session_id will be regenerated.

It’s important for you to understand that once initialized, the Session class runs automatically. There is nothing you need to do to cause the above behavior to happen. You can, as you’ll see below, work with session data or even add your own data to a user’s session, but the process of reading, writing, and updating a session is automatic.

What is Session Data?

A session, as far as CodeIgniter is concerned, is simply an array containing the following information:
##The user’s unique Session ID (this is a statistically random string with very strong entropy, hashed with MD5 for portability, and regenerated (by default) every five minutes)
##The user’s IP Address
##The user’s User Agent data (the first 120 characters of the browser data string)
##The “last activity” time stamp.

The above data is stored in a cookie as a serialized array with this prototype:

‘session_id’ => random hash,
‘ip_address’ => ‘string – user IP address’,
‘user_agent’ => ‘string – user agent data’,
‘last_activity’ => timestamp

If you have the encryption option enabled, the serialized array will be encrypted before being stored in the cookie, making the data highly secure and impervious to being read or altered by someone. More info regarding encryption can be found here, although the Session class will take care of initializing and encrypting the data automatically.

Note: Session cookies are only updated every five minutes by default to reduce processor load. If you repeatedly reload a page you’ll notice that the “last activity” time only updates if five minutes or more has passed since the last time the cookie was written. This time is configurable by changing the $config[‘sess_time_to_update’] line in your system/config/config.php file.

Retrieving Session Data

Any piece of information from the session array is available using the following function:


Where item is the array index corresponding to the item you wish to fetch. For example, to fetch the session ID you will do this:

$session_id = $this->session->userdata(‘session_id’);

Note: The function returns FALSE (boolean) if the item you are trying to access does not exist.

Adding Custom Session Data

A useful aspect of the session array is that you can add your own data to it and it will be stored in the user’s cookie. Why would you want to do this? Here’s one example:

Let’s say a particular user logs into your site. Once authenticated, you could add their username and email address to the session cookie, making that data globally available to you without having to run a database query when you need it.

To add your data to the session array involves passing an array containing your new data to this function:


Where $array is an associative array containing your new data. Here’s an example:

$newdata = array(
‘username’ => ‘johndoe’,
’email’ => ‘’,
‘logged_in’ => TRUE


If you want to add userdata one value at a time, set_userdata() also supports this syntax.

$this->session->set_userdata(‘some_name’, ‘some_value’);

Note: Cookies can only hold 4KB of data, so be careful not to exceed the capacity. The encryption process in particular produces a longer data string than the original so keep careful track of how much data you are storing.

Retrieving All Session Data

An array of all userdata can be retrieved as follows:


And returns an associative array like the following:
[session_id] => 4a5a5dca22728fb0a84364eeb405b601
[ip_address] =>
[user_agent] => Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; U; Intel Mac OS X 10_6_7;
[last_activity] => 1303142623

Removing Session Data

Just as set_userdata() can be used to add information into a session, unset_userdata() can be used to remove it, by passing the session key. For example, if you wanted to remove ‘some_name’ from your session information:


This function can also be passed an associative array of items to unset.

$array_items = array(‘username’ => ”, ’email’ => ”);



CodeIgniter supports “flashdata”, or session data that will only be available for the next server request, and are then automatically cleared. These can be very useful, and are typically used for informational or status messages (for example: “record 2 deleted”).

Note: Flash variables are prefaced with “flash_” so avoid this prefix in your own session names.

To add flashdata:

$this->session->set_flashdata(‘item’, ‘value’);

You can also pass an array to set_flashdata(), in the same manner as set_userdata().

To read a flashdata variable:


If you find that you need to preserve a flashdata variable through an additional request, you can do so using the keep_flashdata() function.


Saving Session Data to a Database

While the session data array stored in the user’s cookie contains a Session ID, unless you store session data in a database there is no way to validate it. For some applications that require little or no security, session ID validation may not be needed, but if your application requires security, validation is mandatory. Otherwise, an old session could be restored by a user modifying their cookies.

When session data is available in a database, every time a valid session is found in the user’s cookie, a database query is performed to match it. If the session ID does not match, the session is destroyed. Session IDs can never be updated, they can only be generated when a new session is created.

In order to store sessions, you must first create a database table for this purpose. Here is the basic prototype (for MySQL) required by the session class:
session_id varchar(40) DEFAULT ‘0’ NOT NULL,
ip_address varchar(45) DEFAULT ‘0’ NOT NULL,
user_agent varchar(120) NOT NULL,
last_activity int(10) unsigned DEFAULT 0 NOT NULL,
user_data text NOT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (session_id),
KEY `last_activity_idx` (`last_activity`)

Note: By default the table is called ci_sessions, but you can name it anything you want as long as you update the application/config/config.php file so that it contains the name you have chosen. Once you have created your database table you can enable the database option in your config.php file as follows:

$config[‘sess_use_database’] = TRUE;

Once enabled, the Session class will store session data in the DB.

Make sure you’ve specified the table name in your config file as well:

$config[‘sess_table_name’] = ‘ci_sessions’;

Note: The Session class has built-in garbage collection which clears out expired sessions so you do not need to write your own routine to do it.

Destroying a Session

To clear the current session:


Note: This function should be the last one called, and even flash variables will no longer be available. If you only want some items destroyed and not all, use unset_userdata().

Session Preferences

You’ll find the following Session related preferences in your application/config/config.php file:





sess_cookie_name ci_session None The name you want the session cookie saved as.
sess_expiration 7200 None The number of seconds you would like the session to last. The default value is 2 hours (7200 seconds). If you would like a non-expiring session set the value to zero: 0
sess_expire_on_close FALSE TRUE/FALSE (boolean) Whether to cause the session to expire automatically when the browser window is closed.
sess_encrypt_cookie FALSE TRUE/FALSE (boolean) Whether to encrypt the session data.
sess_use_database FALSE TRUE/FALSE (boolean) Whether to save the session data to a database. You must create the table before enabling this option.
sess_table_name ci_sessions Any valid SQL table name The name of the session database table.
sess_time_to_update 300 Time in seconds This options controls how often the session class will regenerate itself and create a new session id.
sess_match_ip FALSE TRUE/FALSE (boolean) Whether to match the user’s IP address when reading the session data. Note that some ISPs dynamically changes the IP, so if you want a non-expiring session you will likely set this to FALSE.
sess_match_useragent TRUE TRUE/FALSE (boolean)


This is the main file.
Here is a very s4455imple PHP statement.
The script will end now.


code example of website development

智慧城市大数据分析 莫纯欢
第一部分 智慧城市大数据分析的应用
。基于位置的社交网络的推荐系统: 朋友推荐、社区推荐、地点推荐、旅行线路推荐和行为活动推荐。
通过网民在社交网络中发布的信息来预测总统选举结 果、疾病蔓延和房价走势,发现异常事件和灾难,分析交通流
量,设计广告推送和商业选址。通过社交媒体还能分析 一个城市的风格以及不同城市之间的相似性。
洋中找到自己感兴趣的部分, 实现了互联网中的信息从被动接收到主动推送的过程。而协同过滤作为推荐系统中最为成
功和研究最多的算法之一, 其基本思想是根据用户兴趣的相似性来进行推荐,把与当前用户相似性最大的用户找出来
并作为邻居用户, 然后将邻居用户兴趣进行计算和加权作为当前用户的兴趣并产生推荐。
。应急响应: 分析北京3万多辆出租车的轨迹来发现城市中的异常事件,从相关的微博中提取关键词来解释异常的原
因,如婚博会、道路坍塌等。 分析160 万日本人一年的GPS 移动轨迹数据库来对日本大地震和福岛核事故发生后的灾
民移动、避难行为进行建模、预测和模拟。这样日后 再有类似事件发生时,便可从之前的灾难中吸取经验,提前做好
济的影响等。 分析大量用户的签到数据为商业选址提供位置建议。比如,要开设一个新的麦当劳餐厅, 什么地方是最
理想的位置。结合道路结构、兴趣点分布、人口流动等诸多因素来对屋的价值排序。 即在市场向好时,哪些小区的房
价将会涨得更多;市场下行时,哪些小区的房价比较抗跌。 与使用传统经济学模型不同,以上这两个例子采用了机器

code example of website

第二部分 智慧城市用到的实现技术 莫纯欢
2.1 感知技术 。温度传感器、位置传感器、交通流线圈、空气质量监测仪等之间的互联互通。 。蜂窝移动通信系统和公交卡系统为城市计算提供了良好的感知平台:分析大量用户的地铁刷卡数据就能掌握城市的 人口流动规律。

2.3 优化技术 向出租车司机推荐最优的乘客寻找路线。
2.4 数据库技术
。轨迹数据(即带有时间戳并按时间排序的点序列)。在城市计算中经常会用到轨迹处理技术,如地图匹配算法、轨 迹压缩、轨迹搜索、轨迹频繁模式挖掘等。
。数据的稀疏性: -采用矩阵分解算法和协同过滤。城市油耗估计就是利用这种方法来解决数据稀疏性问题的。
-基于相似性的聚类算法。计算不同道路之间的相似性,从而对道路进行聚类。这样被分在同一个类里的道路很可能具 有相同的车流模式。于是,在一个类中, 将有传感器道路的读数赋给那些没有传感器的道路。 -使用半监督学习算法来弥补因空气监测站少而带来的训练样本稀疏性。
。流数据库技术feed database

流数据库所有数据都存在于在内存里,就如同数据瀑布在流动过程中,利用数据库内置模块对数据实时打上标签、归 并、分析, 使数据产生实时分析指导结果; 而在流动中打上的这些标签是为今后对数据做进一步处理,将数据进行有 序存储, 从而进一步成为不断变动的数据的存量历史经验参考依据。 流数据实时处理才是数据的核心价值。 。 地理数据:地理数据作为统一的空间定位框架和空间分析基础的地理单元载体,是城市数据的基础和关键组成部分, 包括矢量数据(地理实体 数据集、路径规划数据集等)、瓦片数据(地图瓦片、三维地形瓦片、建筑物模型瓦片等)、索引 数据(地名地址索引、公交站点索引等)、栅格数据(遥感影 像数据、数字表面模型数据等)、表格数据(属性表、统计表)








30k-50k /杭州 / 经验1-3年 / 本科及以上 / 全职

2019-03-18 发布于

数据挖掘工程师 / 30k-50k
出海移动电商、 C轮融资、数据氛围


执御的大数据团队旨在为其旗下的JollyChic APP(中东地区排名第一的电商平台)构建最强的数据大脑,以数据洞见及人工智能驱动公司业务的各个领域。大数据团队目前拥有80多名成员,并在快速扩张中。为进一步满足公司业务发展需求,现招聘机器学习/数据挖掘专家若干。如果你对数据科学及人工智能抱有极大热情,在机器学习、特征工程、深度学习、迁移学习等领域有理论基础及实战经验,请加入我们!


1. 深入理解电商业务,并用机器学习及大数据技术解决其中的各类难题;

2. 负责特征工程及特征提取、 灵活采用机器学习、人工智能及深度学习领域内的各类算法进行建模及实验,并通过模型调优最大化算法性能;

3. 部署机器学习算法,将机器学习落地应用到个性化、广告、仓储支付等各个领域。


1 相关领域(如机器学习/信息检索/统计学/计算机等)硕士及以上学历,三年及以上的从业经验;

2 在如下的一个或多个领域内有过成功的项目经历:

a. 个性化推荐

b. 销售预测

c. 价格优化

d. 客户留存

e. 客户画像

f. 自然语言理解/搜索引擎

g. 用户信用评级

3 在机器学习/数据挖掘领域有扎实基础,熟悉包括贝叶斯理论,线性回归,决策树,SVM,随机森林,GBM等经典机器学习理论及算法,并有实战经验。熟悉算法优化及模型调优。

4 精通至少一门编程语言,包括Python/Java/C/C++等,具有扎实的编程功底。

5 具有良好的问题建模能力,能够将业务问题转化为数据问题,并建模求解。

6 学习能力强,乐于快速掌握业务场景,并不断更新专业知识。


1. 有过深度学习领域(包括但不限于CNN/RNN/LSTM)的学习及实战经验;

2. 熟悉Hadoop/Spark等大数据架构,有过在大数据架构上部署机器学习模型的经验;

3. 了解Scala编程;

4. 有过将机器学习相关算法应用到电商领域的成功经验。

杭州 – 拱墅区 – 三墩 – 杭州市拱墅区祥茂路99号6幢3楼







海外网2月1日电 据俄罗斯卫星通讯社消息,当地时间2月1日,美国国务卿蓬佩奥宣布,自2月2日起,美方暂停履行《中导条约》相关义务,正式启动为期180天的退约进程。






俄罗斯外长拉夫罗夫则认为,美国打算“退群”另有目的,其终极目的是摧毁《新削减战略武器条约》(New START)。俄罗斯副外长谢尔盖·里亚布科夫近日也表示,华盛顿正暂停履行美国所有的义务,《新削减战略武器条约》很有可能将面临与《中导条约》一样的命运。(海外网/李萌)返回搜狐,查看更多












2018-09-14 22:03
Basic Economy


解释:便宜,限制多。许多时候不能退票,不能改签,不能选座,不能有登机行李(no carry-on),有些航空公司规定,如有随身携带的行李,必须只能置于前方座位下面(头上空间要收费)。
造句:Basic Economy is CHEAP!

解释:广义上的Economy泛指普通经济舱,当然偶尔也可以指非头等/商务舱(比如premium economy特级经济舱)。大部分普通经济舱可以退改签,都可以选座,都有免费的登机行李,一般是随身小包+不超规格的行李箱。
造句:Economy is, um, you know, just Okay.

1. 说走就走,没什么行李的散心,像梁朝伟一样,香港飞巴黎喂鸽子,喂完回香港吃烤乳鸽;
2. 普经比基经贵不少,哪怕基经付费买登机行李/托运行李,也比普经便宜。




“选择”后,弹出提示,”Carry-on allowed”












它声称这些补贴帮助该公司赢得了一项重大订单。 2016年, 波音公司赢得了为陆军提供50架阿帕奇直升机的合同 。



Theresa May


总理说,她曾与DUP领导人Arlene Foster和SinnFéin的Michelle O’Neill谈过,并将与他们合作。


与此同时,庞巴迪表示,它将打击“荒谬”的裁决。 该公司是北爱尔兰最大的雇主之一。








Boeing图片版权AFP / GETTY


美国商务部的裁决可能会使去往美国的C系列飞机的成本增加三倍,这可能会危及去年美国航空公司达美航空的一项重大订单 – 一项价值56亿美元(合41.5亿英镑)的交易。 125架喷气式飞机。



grey line



结果被预测 – 但不是惩罚的严重性。


这也使达美航空公司面临一项重大订单 – 风险 – 在情况好转之前情况会变得更糟。




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HTML DOM Element 对象

HTML DOM Element 对象


在 HTML DOM (文档对象模型)中,每个部分都是节点:

  • 文档本身是文档节点
  • 所有 HTML 元素是元素节点
  • 所有 HTML 属性是属性节点
  • HTML 元素内的文本是文本节点
  • 注释是注释节点

Element 对象

在 HTML DOM 中,Element 对象表示 HTML 元素。

Element 对象可以拥有类型为元素节点、文本节点、注释节点的子节点。

NodeList 对象表示节点列表,比如 HTML 元素的子节点集合。



IE Firefox Chrome Safari Opera

所有浏览器都支持 Element 对象和 NodeList 对象。


下面的属性和方法可用于所有 HTML 元素上:

属性 / 方法 描述
element.accessKey 设置或返回元素的快捷键。
element.appendChild() 向元素添加新的子节点,作为最后一个子节点。
element.attributes 返回元素属性的 NamedNodeMap。
element.childNodes 返回元素子节点的 NodeList。
element.className 设置或返回元素的 class 属性。
element.clientHeight 返回元素的可见高度。
element.clientWidth 返回元素的可见宽度。
element.cloneNode() 克隆元素。
element.compareDocumentPosition() 比较两个元素的文档位置。
element.contentEditable 设置或返回元素的文本方向。
element.dir 设置或返回元素的内容是否可编辑。
element.firstChild 返回元素的首个子。
element.getAttribute() 返回元素节点的指定属性值。
element.getAttributeNode() 返回指定的属性节点。
element.getElementsByTagName() 返回拥有指定标签名的所有子元素的集合。
element.getFeature() 返回实现了指定特性的 API 的某个对象。
element.getUserData() 返回关联元素上键的对象。
element.hasAttribute() 如果元素拥有指定属性,则返回true,否则返回 false。
element.hasAttributes() 如果元素拥有属性,则返回 true,否则返回 false。
element.hasChildNodes() 如果元素拥有子节点,则返回 true,否则 false。 设置或返回元素的 id。
element.innerHTML 设置或返回元素的内容。
element.insertBefore() 在指定的已有的子节点之前插入新节点。
element.isContentEditable 设置或返回元素的内容。
element.isDefaultNamespace() 如果指定的 namespaceURI 是默认的,则返回 true,否则返回 false。
element.isEqualNode() 检查两个元素是否相等。
element.isSameNode() 检查两个元素是否是相同的节点。
element.isSupported() 如果元素支持指定特性,则返回 true。
element.lang 设置或返回元素的语言代码。
element.lastChild 返回元素的最后一个子元素。
element.namespaceURI 返回元素的 namespace URI。
element.nextSibling 返回位于相同节点树层级的下一个节点。
element.nodeName 返回元素的名称。
element.nodeType 返回元素的节点类型。
element.nodeValue 设置或返回元素值。
element.normalize() 合并元素中相邻的文本节点,并移除空的文本节点。
element.offsetHeight 返回元素的高度。
element.offsetWidth 返回元素的宽度。
element.offsetLeft 返回元素的水平偏移位置。
element.offsetParent 返回元素的偏移容器。
element.offsetTop 返回元素的垂直偏移位置。
element.ownerDocument 返回元素的根元素(文档对象)。
element.parentNode 返回元素的父节点。
element.previousSibling 返回位于相同节点树层级的前一个元素。
element.removeAttribute() 从元素中移除指定属性。
element.removeAttributeNode() 移除指定的属性节点,并返回被移除的节点。
element.removeChild() 从元素中移除子节点。
element.replaceChild() 替换元素中的子节点。
element.scrollHeight 返回元素的整体高度。
element.scrollLeft 返回元素左边缘与视图之间的距离。
element.scrollTop 返回元素上边缘与视图之间的距离。
element.scrollWidth 返回元素的整体宽度。
element.setAttribute() 把指定属性设置或更改为指定值。
element.setAttributeNode() 设置或更改指定属性节点。
element.setUserData() 把对象关联到元素上的键。 设置或返回元素的 style 属性。
element.tabIndex 设置或返回元素的 tab 键控制次序。
element.tagName 返回元素的标签名。
element.textContent 设置或返回节点及其后代的文本内容。
element.title 设置或返回元素的 title 属性。
element.toString() 把元素转换为字符串。
nodelist.item() 返回 NodeList 中位于指定下标的节点。
nodelist.length 返回 NodeList 中的节点数。

HTML DOM getElementsByName() 方法

HTML DOM getElementsByName() 方法


getElementsByName() 方法可返回带有指定名称的对象的集合。



该方法与 getElementById() 方法相似,但是它查询元素的 name 属性,而不是 id 属性。

另外,因为一个文档中的 name 属性可能不唯一(如 HTML 表单中的单选按钮通常具有相同的 name 属性),所有 getElementsByName() 方法返回的是元素的数组,而不是一个元素。


<script type="text/javascript">
function getElements()
  var x=document.getElementsByName("myInput"); alert(x.length); } </script> </head> <body> <input name="myInput" type="text" size="20" /><br /> <input name="myInput" type="text" size="20" /><br /> <input name="myInput" type="text" size="20" /><br /> <br /> <input type="button" onclick="getElements()" value="How many elements named 'myInput'?" /> </body> </html>
<script type="text/javascript">
function getElements()
  var x=document.getElementsByName("myInput"); alert(x.length); } </script> </head> <body> <input name="myInput" type="text" size="20" /><br /> <input name="myInput" type="text" size="20" /><br /> <input name="myInput" type="text" size="20" /><br /> <br /> <input type="button" onclick="getElements()" value="How many elements named 'myInput'?" /> </body> </html>


Document 对象方法

方法 描述
close() 关闭用 方法打开的输出流,并显示选定的数据。
getElementById() 返回对拥有指定 id 的第一个对象的引用。
getElementsByName() 返回带有指定名称的对象集合。
getElementsByTagName() 返回带有指定标签名的对象集合。
open() 打开一个流,以收集来自任何 document.write() 或 document.writeln() 方法的输出。
write() 向文档写 HTML 表达式 或 JavaScript 代码。
writeln() 等同于 write() 方法,不同的是在每个表达式之后写一个换行符。

Document 对象描述

HTMLDocument 接口对 DOM Document 接口进行了扩展,定义 HTML 专用的属性和方法。

很多属性和方法都是 HTMLCollection 对象(实际上是可以用数组或名称索引的只读数组),其中保存了对锚、表单、链接以及其他可脚本元素的引用。

这些集合属性都源自于 0 级 DOM。它们已经被 Document.getElementsByTagName() 所取代,但是仍然常常使用,因为他们很方便。

write() 方法值得注意,在文档载入和解析的时候,它允许一个脚本向文档中插入动态生成的内容。

注意,在 1 级 DOM 中,HTMLDocument 定义了一个名为 getElementById() 的非常有用的方法。在 2 级 DOM 中,该方法已经被转移到了 Document 接口,它现在由 HTMLDocument 继承而不是由它定义了。

2018 年佛山市科技创新团队申报指南

2018 年佛山市科技创新团队申报指南

围绕佛山市国家创新型城市和互联网+创新创业示范市的建设,全面实施创新驱动发展战略的工作部署,根据《佛山市创建国家创新型城市专项资金管理办法》(佛府办〔2014〕15 号)、《佛山市科技创新团队资助办法》(佛府办〔2013〕11 号)等的规定,响应国家号召迎接佛山“大众创业、万众创新”的新时代,现就申报 2018 年佛山市科技创新团队资助项目的相关事宜,说明如下:






(二)根据团队引进时是否有合作单位,科技创新团队可以分为创新团队和创业团队两大类。1.创新团队:对于由佛山本地合作单位引进的团队,首次与合作单位签订合同或意向性合同日期至本年度申报指南发布日(2018 年 1 月 5 日)不超过 2 年。2.创业团队:申请团队在佛山拟注册成立公司;或者已在佛山市内注册成立的公司,但营业执照注册日期至本年度申报指南发布日(2018 年 1 月 5 日)不超过 2 年。

(三)获得市级立项的科技创新团队,由所在区按照资助办法,以及本区关于科技创新团队引进的有关规定提供不少于 1:1的配套资金。团队项目承担单位须根据项目进度分年度安排自筹资金对项目进行配套,且项目实施第一年的自筹配套资金比例不低于项目实施周期内自筹资金总额的 30%。项目实施周期内自筹资金的总额不低于市、区两级资助金额的总和,所自筹配套资金的年度筹集计划及使用安排在申报书中详细列明,并签署自筹资金承诺书。同时,项目承担单位和项目团队成员需承诺满足市和区关于团队项目立项资助的其他相关要求,并签定项目立项合同书。

(四)团队成员年龄以申报指南发布日(2018 年 1 月 5 日)为计算截点,申报团队需符合的其他资格条件,以及申请资助的层次划分等根据资助办法的有关规定执行。

(五)为规范对科技创新团队的管理,确保团队运作、以及项目人员、资金和会计账务等管理的相对独立性,合理安排项目资金的使用计划,合理制订薪酬分配制度,创新团队和创业团队在获得市级立项之后,均须在佛山注册成立新公司[在佛山已注册成立公司 2 年(公司营业执照注册日期在 2016 年 1 月 5 日以后)以内的创业团队除外]。新公司将作为项目承担单位签订项目立项合同。



(八) 项目实施期限一般为 3 年,个别项目在推进过程中因客观原因需要延期的,须经所在区的科技管理部门加具意见后报市科技局批准。每个项目原则只能延期 1 次,延长时间不超过1 年。


(一)申报程序。2018 年佛山市科技创新团队资助项目实行网上申报,具体操作流程如下:符合申请条件的单位或个人可直接登录佛山市科技局(→点击“佛山市科技局综合业务管理平台”→【系统业务一览】点击“项目类”→点击“佛山市科技创新团队资助项目”→点击“我要申报”栏(或登录后“业务办理”面板的“科技项目类”→“填写申报书”→“市科技创新团队资助项目”)。


电子审核通过后,申报单位(申报人)将纸质材料申报书、项目计划书及相关附件和证明材料 一式七份纸质胶装、签名、盖章后,送交团队项目所在区的经济和科技促进局进行受理。

(二 ) 审核推荐 。各区经济和科技促进局负责受理本辖区内科技创新团队的申报及推荐工作,并按要求对申报材料进行形式审查,对未完善的申请材料协助规范修改或退回;同时加具推荐意见,汇总后连同《佛山市引进科技创新团队申报团队推荐汇总表》一起报市科技局。


(四 ) 经费划拨 。项目资金经费的划拨按照资助办法和市有关专项资金管理办法要求执行。









(一 )创新团队和创业团队如获得立项,须在立项后的 3 个月内在佛山登记注册具有独立法律主体的公司(已按要求注册成立新公司的创业团队除外);团队成员须与项目承担单位签订 3年以上的正式聘用合同,聘用合同的期限要覆盖团队项目的执行时间。团队核心成员在项目承担单位中所占公司股份比例之和不得低于公司总股份的 30%。团队项目承担单位的注册资金不得少于所获得市、区两级资助金额的总和(不符合条件的承载单位须


(二 )团队落户佛山注册成立公司后,按照公司法和国家及省、市有关财务制度的规定和合同书的要求,加强对专项经费的监督和管理,单独建账,专款专用。项目团队成员如发生违反专项经费使用规定的行为,项目承担单位承担连带违约责任。

(三 )在项目实施期间,团队带头人原则上应全职在项目承担单位工作,境外引进的带头人[指拥有外籍证或绿卡且在境外全职工作 2 年(2016 年 1 月 5 日以前)以上]可以放宽条件至在项目实施期内共计有 330 个工作日在承担单位工作。团队第一、第二核心成员原则上应全职在项目承担单位工作。其余核心成员可选择全职或兼职共计有 330 个工作日在承担单位工作。团队成员中的诺贝尔奖等国际大奖获得者、院士等顶尖人才,可放宽条

件至平均每年在佛山工作时间累计 3 个月以上。优先支持所有成员全职在佛山工作的团队。

(四 )在项目实施期间,创新科研团队原则上团队人员数量不变,团队总体人员应保持相对稳定。其中团队带头人不得变更,否则视为自动放弃项目资助,项目资助中止;团队核心成员原则上不得变更,如因特殊情况需要变更,须按程序向佛山市科学技术局提出书面申请,并获准同意后方可实施,核心成员变更人数不得超过团队人数的三分之一。


(六 )申报团队(申报人)应承诺所提供的团队带头人、核心成员的相关证明材料,以及知识产权归属证明材料需完整、真实、有效、可靠,同时保证自主知识产权清晰,并能说明专利技术跟项目实施的关联性。申报书中团队带头人及核心成员亲笔签名确认,即视为本人已知悉申报书内容并了解在团队中将享有的权利和承担的义务。


(八 )申报书中所有填写内容须与附件佐证材料一致,如有缺失、虚报、前后矛盾的,视为形式审查不合格,取消后续评审资格。

(九)纸质材料装订要求:(1)申报书以通过电子审核形成的 PDF 申报书版本(带水印,无草稿字样)为准;(2)申报书中的承诺书、承担单位或团队自筹配套足额资金承诺函、承担单位意见要求亲笔签名,加盖公章处应为单位公章原件;(3)申报书封面纸使用 200g 卡纸,封面内容采用 PDF 申报书首页,申报书正文内容采用双面打印,并与附件材料目录、附件材料一并胶装,申报书需制作书脊,格式为:“XXX(项目编号)”+“XXX(团队名称)”+“XXX(带头人)”

( 十)根据《佛山市科技创新团队资助办法》(佛府办〔2013〕11 号)的规定,我市现行对市级科技创新团队的资助幅度是 100至 800 万元。目前我市正依据即将出台的《佛山市人才发展体制机制改革实施意见》对市科技创新团队资助办法进行修订,其中对资助金额调整较大。2018 年市级科技创新团队的资助幅度以申报截止日生效的《佛山市科技创新团队资助办法》为准,请各申报团队予以关注。


工资在美国科研经费里是怎样回扣的 精选
已有 10530 次阅读 2010-10-4 21:41 |个人分类:政策评论|系统分类:科研笔记|关键词:科研经费,经费分配,工资,回扣| 工资, 科研经费, 回扣, 经费分配

看到有朋友在评语中讲到国内经费可以按百分比回扣来作为工资。这里我谈一谈 我所知道的关于在美国科研经费里工资是怎样回扣的,如有错误的地方,请大家指正。
美国科研经费里工资的回扣是根据审请人的原来的工资来定的。所以审阅的人往往可以知道全国各地的工资了。如果你是九个月的工资,你可以理直气壮地要求一到三个月的工资(美国NSF一个项目好象最多只能要两个月)。美国NIH就非常宽松了。你在申请时要报上你在这个项目上准备花的时间比例(Percent of Effort)。你可以根据这个比例乘上工资来报预算。项目到手后,这部分工资可直接划入你的系里。一般,系或医学院会要求你能至少上交他们给你工资的一定比例(名医学院如哈佛75%甚至100%)。如果有余额,你可以把这些钱用于科研但不能用于自己的工资。有时,系里会批准用这个钱给你作为临时工资来奖励你搞经费的能力。一般这在你有了两个或两个以上的NIH的大笔经费才有可能。所以说医学院的系主任权力特别大。但最多也就奖10-15%罢了。所以,就我所知,NIH经费里的工资预算主要是用于还给学校在你身上的投资。假如你不能满足所要求上交工资的比例怎么办?助理教授前三年的工资(或暑假工资)是靠启动经费保证的。过了三年,还没有拿到经费的话,系主任给你的压力就会非常大。 我的第一笔NIH经费是到学校后的第三学年底才拿到的,所以有亲身体会。已经有了终身教授的、拿九个月的工资的,没有科研经费意味着你就失去了暑假工资。而拿了十二月工资的,你的命运就由具体学校的规定来决定了。公立大学可能问题不大。好的私立大学会给一到三年的支持到你拿到新的经费。所以,在医学院搞经费的压力特别大。我知道的一个常在Nature和Science上发文章的牛人,在有了一次没有经费短暂的经历之后,就去了加拿大。简短地来说,美国科研经费不容易拿,而回扣有各种限制。


在中国学者的想象之中,美国的经费很多,很容易申请到,花不完。事实上我了解的是,甚至比中国还难申请。举一个例子。我的科研同行,Illnois大学化学系的K S Suslick是国际超声波化学的权威,1983年获得NSF资助,才34万美元,按实际的购买力计算,只相当于目前中国NSFC的一个自由申请的所谓面上项目的经费,但是,从1983-1989年,此人用这些经费在Nature, Science发表论文9篇,JACS, JPC发表论文超过20篇。目前中国投资3-4千万元的所谓973项目也远远达不到如此论文发表水平。美国的科研经费使用效率极高,这才是根本。因为有了一流的人才,严格的淘汰制度,才保证基础研究的活力。


发布时间:2014-05-27 来源:佛山高新区



  发表单位:科学技术局发表时间:2013-01-24[ 浏览字体:大 中 小 ]





























































































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Free Beautiful CSS Layouts for User Interface Designers

How do websites get all those interesting alignments of content, colors, and flexibility? It’s because of CSS! Think of CSS as the suit of the web. It’s that extra coating on the cake to make it look wonderful, and while we can’t taste the web, we can certainly enjoy it to the fullest when designers take their time to provide unique, ambitious and stellar web browsing experiences. Getting started with CSS was never easier, now there are hundreds of books, frameworks and coding websites that provide on-board experience for understanding how exactly the web is getting styled, and whether you can become a contributor of those styling efforts yourself.

Layouts are some of the most technical aspects of web design, in order to present a website properly, it needs to have a well-designed layout in place, and while in traditional web design we used to rely on complex single-grids and then repurposed each grid to reflect our individual box elements, we’re not living in times where tools like Flexbox are available so that we can create multi-layered design grids and style each one individually in whichever way we prefer. It has been a long journey up to this point, and even though these new tools exist, some designers are still struggling to put the pieces together, mostly because CSS evolution is rather fast and with the help of JS and HTML5 — that process can become more like a spider web.

So without further adue, we’re giving you the thirty most versatile CSS layouts as built by CSS veterans themselves, these designs and layouts are ready to be used by you in your own projects, or solely for the purposes of understanding how layouts work. It’s a wonderful collection of layouts that are going to inspire the living hell out of you as you begin to realize how much CSS has progressed, and how a slight addition of interactive JS code can make all the difference. At the very bottom we left some room to include famous CSS layout frameworks to help you style a responsive and modern layout in a matter of minutes.

Metro UI — Windows 8

Metro UI -- Windows 8

Martabak Angus is an Indonesian resident who does plenty of front-end development in languages like Laravel, Angular, Sass, and many others. What we have here is one of his many creative expressions for creating unique designs based on previously established concepts. Windows Metro design became popular once Windows went past the version 7, and now is comfortably being used amongst many of the windows platforms, but also recently it has become incredibly famous amongst designers who take their time for implementing metro designs in their websites and apps. This particular User Interface also adds the traditional Windows Desktop layout to your workflow. Moreover, you have smooth flowing and animated buttons with an extra added gallery slider that creates an interactive experience. Windows 8 Metro UI is built purely with native CSS3 — totally free from JavaScript, even the sliding gallery!


Pure CSS Masonry Layout with Flexbox

Pure CSS Masonry Layout with Flexbox

Jhey Tompkins is a CSS expert with more than 15,000 individual contributions on GitHub in the last year alone, what an amazing achievement. Many of his repositories on GitHub have 100+ stars as well, and he’s well known amongst his peers. This particular CSS layout from Jhey is using Flexbox to attain a solidified masonry layout ready for being boosted with your own elements and website widgets. Some interesting features include the ability to “flip” individual grids for added creativity, but also focused grids that are highlighted once the user hovers over it. Furthermore, perfect grid layout to use for a website project that’s going to be dealing with a lot of content.


Expanding Column Layout

Expanding Column Layout

Ettrics is a small digital design agency that resides in Canada. Two guys manage this little agency and have created some incredible works of art that have been recognized by hundreds of thousands of designers across the globe. They’ve also shared some truly cool CSS snippets in the past, like Hexagon animations, slider animations, menu overlays, drag and drop interfaces, and interactive bar graphs — adding up to 100,000+ views in total.

They’re also not shy when it comes to writing and sharing tutorials with the community, and have extensive written about the ways designers can create user interface kits, and how to create appealing user experiences using good design understanding. The developers also built this layout called Expanding Column Layout. Audiences viewed this layout more than 30,000+ times already. Once you access this layout, you will see a simple page layout perfect for portfolios that shows different color columns, and expands each column individually. Within the expanding window you can put in any content that you like.


Fullscreen Layout with Columns

Fullscreen Layout with Columns

Karol Podlesny has taken the work of Ettrics and changed up the schematics a little bit. You also get a different set of colors, and slightly more optimized expanding windows for sharing content. Moreover, it’s full screen and adapts to mobile devices gracefully. Worth sharing to save you time from managing colors individually.


Pure CSS Masonry Layout

Pure CSS Masonry Layout

Adam Blum has made a couple of interesting shares in the past, and this pure CSS masonry layout is not an exception to that. If you’re looking to expand your knowledge about CSS3 columns without having to tinker with JavaScript — this simple layout could be a great starting point. We all have to start somewhere, anyway. Also, the creators neatly organized the individual column blocks together, and you can quickly build on top of each of the blocks as you continue to add more elements to your layout.


Static Page Layout Example

Static Page Layout Example

Nick Pettit is an exceptional game developer who also happens to be one of the in-house course teachers at Treehouse; world famous developer learning resource. What Nick has built here with this layout is an example of how a static website layout functions, and how such a static layout can be used to build prototypes without necessarily having to put in the hours to provide a flawless functioning demo.


Product Page Layout with Flexbox

Product Page Layout with Flexbox

The official team behind Angular.js is also actively sharing different snippets and code structures on how to create particular layouts and such, Angular Material is giving to the community a solid Flexbox layout for product pages. The developers packed this theme with individual product grids, for featured and ordinary product displays. They also gave this product the ability to sort and filter results. This gives you a little bit of a taste of what to expect in the new Angular 2 framework that’s amplified with the Material Design spec. Wonderful results altogether.


Beautiful CSS3 Layout

Beautiful CSS3 Layout

Adrian Gyuricska has produced a very neat little CSS layout that’s ideal for hosting a portfolio page, but could essentially be converted into a single page blog layout too. What we like the most is the smooth sidebar that’s enriched with links, and the colorful element layout that is divided into different sections. There is also a little bit of JavaScript action happening, and the template is styled with Jade and SCSS.


Flexbox Grid Layout with Mobile Menu

Flexbox Grid Layout with Mobile Menu

Lindsey Di Napoli is behind CSSgirl — a portfolio / resource project from Lindsey that depicts her career as a front-end designer. She’s built some cool stuff in her time, and the Flexbox Grid Layout (with a supported mobile navigation) is one of her best works to date, at least in terms of free sharing, we’re sure she has worked on some truly inspiring project in the past herself. So either way, this layout once again shows how Flexbox can be used to create an aesthetic and perfectly aligned design, we like the use of cards within the content areas, with the neat little overlays that display social sharing buttons.


Flat Blog Layout with CSS3

Flat Blog Layout with CSS3

Renaud Tertrais is behind projects like Flat CSS3 breadcrumbs, tiny round breadcrumbs, animated logo using SVG and JavaScript, CSS3 icons (arrows), a flat CSS3 ratings system, input range demos, and of course this flat blog layout all built using pure CSS3. You can choose to show the layout as list items, but also as a grid. It’s a simplistic layout approach that would fit in well with any of your upcoming projects where a blog is going to be required. Adapting to this code is going to be extremely easy and painless.


Responsive Card Layout with Flexbox

Responsive Card Layout with Flexbox

Mynor Alexander can teach you a few things about Flexbox and card layouts, and you don’t even need to see him in person. It’s all right here within the source code of this Responsive Card Layout built using Flexbox. Nowadays the adaption of card layouts is growing increasingly, the value that they provide for design experience is invaluable and so it goes without saying that learning how to use cards in design as a front-end developer is going to be quintessential for progressing to the future of web design.


CSS Only Responsive Layout with Smooth Transitions

CSS Only Responsive Layout with Smooth Transitions

Ying Zhang works with several big brands as a web developer, and hosts her own project Pure Essence to discuss her own progress as a developer. Amongst the snippets that she has shared, you’ll find this pure CSS layout with supported smooth transition, all fully and completely responsive optimized. The transitions happen through a menu selection at the bottom of the page, once an item has been clicked on then a new page rolls open using the smooth transition implementation. The each individual aspect of the pages can be customized as best fits your requirements. Lovely example of how to build interactivity on the web.


Grid with Layouts

Grid with Layouts

This is yet another share from Angular Material, this time they’re sharing a simple grid layout that can be used as a boilerplate for future design development. Keep an eye on their CodePen page as they continue to push out new layouts and concepts in preparation for the full release of Angular 2 framework.


CSS3 Shopping Cart Layout

CSS3 Shopping Cart Layout

Jake Rocheleau writes for some of the most well known design resources in the digital field, his writing has been featured on several occasions amongst the leading web design publications, and when he’s got some free time on his hands he is more than happy to code away and share his scripts and creative creations with other fellow designers. One such script is the HTML5 + CSS3 layout for shopping carts. It’s a modern approach for creating simple yet flexible shopping carts that focus on the photo of the product, the quantity, product name, and the total price. Very simple, yet it has been emphasized by research that shopping carts should remain as simple and straightforward as possible. You won’t find a single line of JavaScript within this layout, so go ahead and plug this into your existing eCommerce sites to deliver a much smoother user experience.


Flexbox Article Layout

Flexbox Article Layout

Jon Daiello has worked on a number of great projects, most of which involved development and designing of products. Here in this layout he goes to show us just how flexible Flexbox can really be when it comes down to structuring a layout for content, whether for magazine or blog articles, with Flexbox it is possible to attain that crisp quality that you won’t find elsewhere easily. This Responsive Article Layout is built to resemble a traditional content layout within a grid. This is the same layout that Jon is using on his website, which is another way of saying that he trusts his own work. The header and the footer areas could use a little bit of improvement, for sure, and perhaps all you need to take away from this layout is the actual structure of the grid itself.


Fullscreen Layout with Page Transitions

Fullscreen Layout with Page Transitions

You actually saw the horizontal version of this layout earlier in the post, so what Furkan Özden has done here is he took the original layout and simply converted it into a boxed layout, perhaps more appropriate for special case designs. The functionality is all the same, you get different selections of boxes (links) which open up a fullscreen modal window with your content inside. Still a good choice for portfolios and those who want to host their resumes on the web. The page transitions don’t lose their smoothness.


Skeleton Layout Example

Skeleton Layout Example

SitePoint as always knows what are the best things to share, these guys have been running their web development platform for decades and are super experienced with the latest technology and what is trending on the web these days, their Skeleton layout is an example of how to build a skeleton layout for a business website that can be freely styled, adjusted and optimized by anyone who wants to practice their front-end skills. You’ve got a nice full screen header section with a center positioned navigation widget, nice cards elements for showcasing your skills and experience, a separate widget element for showing your resume information (description, experience, how to hire), and lastly at the footer you got contact details, and social media information. Good overall design, and would be ideal for beginners to practice how to position things in a layout using the latest web design technology.


CSS Grid Layout Module — Responsive Magazine Layout

CSS Grid Layout Module

Heather Buchel writes code mostly in association with animation examples and how animation can be used to enrich user experience. In this demo Heather is focusing on a responsive magazine layout that’s based on a grid module. You get a nice logo header to compliment your magazine brand with good typography, an area for featured publications, and space for publishing individual article spots, at the bottom the navigation is aimed for further discovering content within the magazine, but could also be plugged to promote your store items.


Tile Style Layout with Flexbox and Flex Wrap

Tile Style Layout with Flexbox and Flex Wrap

Jack Armley works for Expedia and has spent several years building online games and websites with his own unique and creative twist. A lot of his work involves using typography and general fonts understanding to deliver spectacular experiences for those who have the privilege of working with him. This CSS3 layout demo is based on a tiled style layout that uses Flexbox and Flex Wrap to create a design worthy of using on blog sites, quote sites, editorials, and general content sharing sites that would benefit from a cards/grid layout combination.


Responsive Vertical Timeline

Responsive Vertical Timeline

CodyHouse is a free library of ready-to-use and easy-to-customize code snippets. Whenever CodyHouse releases a new snippet or a script, they accompany it with their own tutorials and guides. These guides and tutorials can show  yhow the code works, and how the final result was achieved. In this example, we have a Responsive Vertical Timeline layout. You can use it ideally on business websites or portfolios where you want to showcase how much you progressed. Showcase your progress from one point to the next over the years! It would be unusual to see this design used in magazines. But, you can get away with certain blog type sites using a timeline layout. Those who publish content in relation to latest business updates and news can also utilize this feature.


Fixed Daily Kitteh

Fixed Daily Kitteh

The WCC, also known as Women’s Coding Collective, is a community of developers that is strictly aimed at helping women. WCC empowers them through writing code. It can bridge the gap between the gender roles that you typically find in web development communities today. WCC provides women with guidance and resources on how to start their careers as developers. This Daily Kitteh layout example is just one of the examples of the kind of work that WCC offers for learning. Women can learn how to structure a nice and static website page. WCC can also let them understand how all of the elements cooperate together for the final result.


Spotify Artist Page UI

Spotify Artist Page UI

Adam Lowenthal gives away an insane compilation of UI elements that come directly from Spotify’s artist pages. This is a huge layout that is going to take you a little bit of time to fully depict and understand. You’ve got sidebars full of navigation menus that go deep into the layout. These layouts allow users to access different aspects of the artist pages. You’ve got the latest songs and a music player integrated, as well as an addition of related artists. You’ve really got to take your time to understand this layout fully, however enjoy it because it’s a true treasure.




Neutron is a SASS powered CSS framework that gives you the tools to create flexible, organized and clear website layouts. You can do this by using semantic markup. Most of the time, you will be working with columns. It accepts individual parameters that can help you define the way you want for your layout to look like. Those parameters include column lists, container dimensions, container alignments, margins, selector targets, and grid order. Each of those parameters can help you organize a layout that would best reflect your intentions.




CSSTYLE is a thing that you knew you needed, but never knew how to access before it was built. The creators developed this amazing tool to help you craft well organized, style guide compliant, and easy to maintain stylesheets. These days maintaining large collections of stylesheets is simply impossible. You may also find yourself in a rut as you’re trying to make sense of all the selectors and classes. Also, you need to learn on how they affect your main codebase.

With CSSTYLE you can forget about those problems as this tool helps you create CSS files. These files are easy to read, easy to navigate, and even does some automation work for you. You can create generic style tweaks that can be applied to any component instance, part, element, etc. You can apply tweaks using a + sign followed by the tweak name. Tweaks automatically override the styling of components, options, and parts.




With all those incredibly beautiful CSS layouts that we looked at, you still realize that there’s something missing. That is the web elements and components that you could place so you can create a fully functional website. Sure, coding them by yourself is possible, but why waste the time when you’ve got frameworks like Pure to work with? Pure actually provides you with several layout options itself. This includes blogs, emails, photos galleries, landing pages, pricing tables, side menus, and other types of menus.

You can stitch these layouts together and begin the process of building a unique web design. The components that Pure includes are grids, buttons, tables, forms, and menus. All of these flow together effortlessly as you carefully put them all together. By including Pure and writing some CSS, you can ensure that your site or app works across browsers. It will even look truly unique. Best of all, your CSS file size will remain tiny. This feature is great for mobile users and others with slow connections.


YAML CSS Framework

YAML CSS Framework

YAML gives you all the modern designer features to create truly responsive websites. It’s grid system is know for being flexible and unmatched by different frameworks. YAML provides its users with extended documentations. These can help you in getting you up to speed and in sync with modern design development. The developers organized the codebase in a way that it perfectly compliments CSS3 and HTML5 structuring. YAML has been in existence for 11 years now. Since then, it continued to evolve and grow as one of the leading front-end frameworks for rapid responsive development.




If you’re building a project that doesn’t require all the extensive features of large frameworks, Skeleton is your best choice. The developers topped this boilerplate template with some handy elements to brush up your designs. The grid is a basic 12 column grid that’s mobile responsive and adapts to devices automatically. Typography is customizable and also uses responsive properties to adjust appropriate on each browser. You can choose from a few predefined styles of buttons, and also implement custom forms. We all know that these can sometimes be difficult to manage, but Skeleton makes that process a breeze. Then you have elements like media queries, code highlighting, tables, lists and basic utilities. You can also download the available demo landing page.


Kube CSS Framework


Kube is a future oriented professional web development framework to be used for rapid bootstrapping of mobile and web applications. In a sense it acts as the prototype complex for the backend of your whole application. You can use your own style guides and code algorithms so you can create the design that you need. There are many different reasons why thousands of professional developers and designers worldwide choose Kube for their projects. For one, Kube is only 32Kb, which is quite impressive considering what it can do for you. Another thing, it’s completely up to the developers and designers whether or not to fully embrace Kube’s minimalistic style. They can also choose to expand and extend it to, well, pretty much any scale.




Susy is a powerhouse of a framework that does all of the hard work for you. It can put your ideas and design patterns together into a single layout.


Alex Ivanovs

Alex is a freelance writer with more than 10 years of experience in design, development, and small business. His work has been featured in publications like Entrepreneur, Huffington Post, TheNextWeb, and others.


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Choosing a web host is typically one of the first decisions you’ll make when setting up your website. However, over time you may come to regret your choice of provider. If this happens, you’ll be faced with the prospect of migrating your website from one host to another.

Fortunately, this process is easier than it might first appear. You can use a simple plugin such as Duplicator to move your WordPress site to a host that will provide a better, safer home for it – like DreamHost! What’s more, this can be done in just a few steps.

In this article, we’ll show you how to easily migrate your site to DreamHost in four steps. First, let’s discuss why you might want to do so!

Why You Might Want to Migrate Your WordPress Website

When we talk about migrating your website, we mean moving it from one web host to another. Typically, one of the first things you’ll do when creating a new site is choose and sign up with a hosting provider. They’ll company will normally take care of getting your site online, so people are actually able to visit it.

However, sometimes you’ll want to move your site to a different host after it’s been up and running for a while. There are a number of reasons you might want to migrate your WordPress site to a different host, including:

  • Your site has grown over time, and you need more options, functionality, or space to keep up with it.
  • Your current host doesn’t provide the security features or support options you’re looking for.
  • Your site is experiencing poor performance or a lot of downtime.

If you feel it’s time for a change, whether due to the above reasons or something else entirely, your first step will be to find a new host that’s a better fit. You should look for one providing excellent performance and uptime, plenty of flexibility and ‘scalable’ options, and top-notch security and support.

Here at DreamHost, we offer hosting plans that meet all of these criteria and more. You can choose from a number of affordable shared hosting packages, or opt for DreamPress – a fully-managed solution. Either way, you’ll benefit from great performance, lots of useful, WordPress-specific features, and expert support.

What’s more, migrating your site to DreamHost is a simple process. We can handle it for you for a small fee, or you can do it yourself using a dedicated plugin.

Our recommendation: Sign up for DreamPress, the premier WordPress hosting service.

Introducing Duplicator

Duplicator screenshot

If you’ve decided to migrate your WordPress website, you have several options. As we mentioned above, you can often have you new host take care of the process for you. Advanced users may be interested in manual migration options, such as using WP-CLI. However, in many cases, the simplest option is to use a plugin.

Duplicator is one of the best plugins available for migrating your WordPress site. It’s a multipurpose tool that enables you to move, migrate, and clone your site — or you can simply copy it in order to create a backup. What’s more, Duplicator is flexible, easy to use, and very reliable.

Key Features

  • Enables you to move or migrate your WordPress site to a new domain or host.
  • Lets you clone or copy your website to create a backup or staging site.
  • Provides the option to copy and move only the parts of your site you need.


The base Duplicator plugin is free, and it’s all you’ll need to migrate your site. However, you can also opt for the premium version, which includes extra features such as scheduled backups, cloud storage options, and the ability to easily migrate an entire multisite WordPress network.

How to Migrate Your WordPress Website to DreamHost (In 4 Steps)

Now we’ve covered the basics, it’s time to discuss how to actually perform your site migration. With that in mind, the four steps below will help you move your site from your current hosting provider to another web host.

Step 1: Prepare for the Migration Process

Migrating your site to DreamHost (or any web host) is a fairly simple process. However, there are a few tasks you’ll want to take care of before proceeding:

  1. Download the Duplicator plugin from the Plugin Directory, and install and activate it on your site.
  2. Create a backup of your site, if you don’t have a recent one handy. This will enable you to easily reverse your changes if something goes wrong. You can use Duplicator to do this, simply by following Step 2 below and saving the resulting files to a secure location.
  3. Make sure you have an FTP client set up since you’ll need one to transfer your migration files from your old site to the new one. If you don’t have an FTP client yet, we recommend FileZilla. It’s free, and simple to both use and get started with.
  4. Choose and sign up for your new hosting plan.

After you have all of the above items in place, you’re ready to move on to the next step!

Step 2: Create a Copy of Your Existing Website

Once Duplicator is activated on your site, you’ll see a new option named after the plugin on your WordPress dashboard. Click on it, and you’ll be taken to a page where you can create a ‘package’. This simply means a collection of files that make up a copy of your site.

To get started, click on the Create New button. You’ll be prompted to give your package a name – be sure to title it something you can easily identify. Below that are a few advanced options:

Under Storage, you can choose a location to store your package if you have the premium version of the plugin (otherwise, it will simply be downloaded to your computer). Archive enables you to choose certain files and directories you don’t want to include in your package (for example, if you only wanted to back up part of your site). Finally, you can use the Installer section to customize the install process, although if you leave these fields alone they will be automatically filled in by the plugin.

For now, you can safely ignore these advanced options and simply select Next. Wait a few moments while Duplicator scans your site, then presents its results:

Most (if not all) categories should be listed as Good. However, if any show the Warn status, you can click on the link next to those categories to see some suggestions for how to resolve the problem.

It’s important to be aware that seeing one or more Warn statuses does not necessarily mean there’s an issue – just the potential for one. You can still attempt to build a package, and chances are it will proceed without any errors. Even so, if you do run into a problem, there are some handy troubleshooting resources available online.

Once you’ve checked out any problematic results, go ahead and hit the Buildbutton. Again, you’ll need to wait while Duplicator creates your package (it shouldn’t take long). When it’s done, you’ll get a success message:

You’ll need to click on both the Installer and Archive buttons to download all the files and save them to your computer. Installer will provide you with a standalone PHP file, while Archive is the zipped folder containing your site’s information. With that, the first part of the migration process is complete.

Step 3: Download the Duplicator Files to Your New Server

Next up, you’ll need to take the files you just downloaded and set them up on DreamHost. This is where your FTP client comes into play. In addition, you’ll need the credentials required to access your FTP server, which you can find in your host’s control panel.

After logging into your FTP server, locate your website’s root folder and open it. Then, simply upload your Installer and Archive files from Duplicator into this folder:

Before you can perform the install itself, you’ll need to do one more thing. Visit your DreamHost control panel, and navigate to Goodies > MySQL Databases:

On this page, you can create a new hostname and an empty database, which will be the home for your new site. You’ll need to fill out all of the fields on this page, which means picking a name for your database, choosing a username and password, and creating a new hostname. Bear in mind though, the latter may require up to a few hours to take effect.

When your new database is ready, you can move on to the last step.

Step 4: Install Your Migrated Website on DreamHost

Now you have a new home for your site, and you’ve copied over your duplicated files, it’s time to complete the migration process. In your favorite browser, visit the URL for the installer.php file you uploaded via FTP. It will look something like this: (remembering to substitute your own domain name).

A Duplicator installer will appear that looks quite similar to the page you used to download the files to your computer earlier:
As before, you can skip over the advanced options under the ArchiveValidation, and Options tabs. Just check off the box under Notices to show you’ve accepted the terms and conditions, then click the Next button. The second page will prompt you to enter the new hostname and credentials for the database you created in the last step:

Then, you can ensure the information is correct and your database has been set up properly by selecting Test Database. If everything goes smoothly (which it should), you’ll get a green Success message.

Following on, select Next, and hit Yes on the confirmation pop-up that appears. On the third page, you’ll need to confirm the URLPath, and Title for your installation:

These fields should already be populated correctly, so feel free to move on to the last page. Here, click on Site Login, which will take you to the admin portal for your new site. Use your normal username and password to log in.

Once you’re in the back end of your new site, you should see another success message:

This means your migrated site is set up and ready to go. Before wrapping up, click on Remove Installation Files Now!, and let the plugin work for a few moments. It will delete the installer files from your site, which are no longer needed. It’s important to do this to save space, and not offer a security concern.

That’s it! Your migrated site should be up and running, although you may still need to redirect your domain name to point to DreamHost. It’s a smart idea to test your new site thoroughly and make sure that everything has been transferred correctly. Then you can delete your old site, and enjoy your new quality hosting with DreamHost.

Come on Over

Migrating your website to a new host might be a bit of a hassle, but it can be well worth it in the long run. If your current host isn’t up to par, you’ll want to switch to a new host that provides the performance, stability, and security your site needs to thrive. Plus, WordPress users will find that the process can be handled easily using a dedicated plugin, such as Duplicator.



This plugin exports your WordPress website including the database, media files, plugins and themes with no technical knowledge required.
Upload your site to a different location with a drag and drop in to WordPress.
There is an option to apply an unlimited number of find and replace operations on your database during the export process. The plugin will also fix any
serialisation problems that occur during the find/replace operation.

Mobile device compatible: All in One WP Plugin is the first plugin to offer true mobile experience on WordPress versions 3.3 and up.



  • We use chunks to import your site data. Most providers set the maximum upload file size to 2MB. As the file restrictions are only applied to each chunk, webserver upload size restrictions are bypassed by keeping the chunks under 2MB to easily upload your entire site.


  • The plugin does not require any PHP extensions and works with all versions of PHP from v5.2 onwards. This is great news for v5.2 users who are unsupported by many other products.


  • No matter what php mysql driver your webserver ships with, we support it.


  • We have a comprehensive Quality Assurance and testing process that ensures that the plugin is always compatible with the latest release of WordPress, but we don’t support versions of WordPress prior to version 3.3 (2012)



  • For the community version of the plugin please watch the instruction videos below and see our FAQ.
  • If you have more complex requirements, our team is here to help. If you have any questions please feel free to get in touch at
  • All premium products include premium support.


All of the Cloud Storage and Multisite extensions include premium support and the Unlimited extension free of charge


The plugin does not have any dependencies, making it compatible with all PHP hosting providers. We support a vast range of hosting providers. Some of the most popular include:



All-in-One WP Migration asks for your consent to collect requester’s email address when filling plugin’s contact form. GDPR Compliant Privacy Policy


Contributors & Developers

“All-in-One WP Migration” is open source software. The following people have contributed to this plugin.


the best WordPress hosting companies offer free migration service. If they don’t publicly state that, then all you have to do is ask. Usually it’s free, but some may charge a small fee.

Step 1: Choose Your New WordPress Host

If you are stuck with a slow web host even after optimizing WordPress speedand performance, then it’s time to move your WordPress site to a new host that can handle your growing traffic.

When looking for a new WordPress hosting provider, it’s important to choose carefully, so you don’t have to move again any time soon.

Here’s who we recommend:

  • For reliable shared hosting, we recommend going with Bluehost. They’re officially recommended by And with our Bluehost coupon, WPBeginner users get 60% off and a free domain name.
  • If you’re looking for cloud hosting or location-specific providers, then we recommend you check out Siteground. They have data centers across 3 different continents.
  • If you’re looking for dedicated servers, then we recommend you check out InMotion Hosting. Their commercial class servers and support are amazing.
  • If you’re looking for managed WordPress hosting, then we recommend you check out WP Engine. They are the best and most well-known provider in the business.

After buying your new hosting, do NOT install WordPress. We’ll do that in a later step. For now, your new web host account should be completely empty, with no files or folders in your main directory.

Step 2: Set Up Duplicator for Easy Migration

The first thing you need to do is install and activate the free Duplicator plugin on the website that you want to move. For more details, see our step by step guide on how to install a WordPress plugin.

Duplicator is a free plugin that we highly recommend. You can also use it to move your website to a new domain name without losing SEO.

However, in this article we will walk you through how to use it to migrate your WordPress site to a new hosting provider with zero downtime.

Once you have installed and activated Duplicator, go to the Duplicator » Packages page in your WordPress admin area.

Next, you need to click the ‘Create New’ button in the top right corner.

Creating a new package in Duplicator

After that, click the Next button and follow the steps to create your package.

Creating a new package in Duplicator

Make sure that your scan results check out (everything should say “Good”), and then click the Build button.

Build package

The process may take several minutes to complete, so leave the tab open as it works.

Once the process is complete, you will see download options for Installer and the Archive package. You need to click on the ‘One click download’ link to download both files.

Download package files

The archive file is a copy of your site, and the installer file will automate the installation process for you.

Step 3: Import Your WordPress Site to Your New Host

Now that you have downloaded both the archive and installer files, the next step is to upload them to your new web host.

You can do this by connecting to your new web host using FTP. If you’ve never done this before, check out our beginner’s guide to uploading files via FTP to WordPress.

Normally, you would enter your website’s domain name as host when connecting your FTP client. However, since your domain name is still poiting to your old host, you’ll need to connect by entering your server’s IP address or server host name. You can find this information from your new hosting account’s cpanel dashboard.

Server IP or hostname

If you are unable to find this information, then ask support at your new web host and they will help you out.

Using your FTP client, upload both installer.php file and your archive .zip file to the root directory of your website. This is usually /username/public_html/folder. Again, if you are not sure, then ask your web hosting company.

Make sure that your root directory is completely empty. Some web hosting companies automatically install WordPress when you sign up. If you have WordPress installed in your root directory, then you need to delete WordPress first.

Now you need to upload both the archive zip file and installer.php file to your site’s root directory.

Step 4: Change The Hosts File to Prevent Downtime

Once you’ve uploaded both files to your new host, you need to access the installer.php file in a browser.

The file can be accessed using a URL like this:

However, this URL will take you to your old web host, and you will get a 404 error. This is because your domain name is still pointing to your old web host.

Normally, folks will tell you to change your domain nameservers and point to your new host. However, that will result in your users seeing a broken website as you migrate it.

We’ll show you how you can access your new site temporarily on your computer, without affecting your old site.

This is done with a hosts file on your computer.

The hosts file can be used to map domain names to specific IP addresses. In this step, we will show you how to add an entry for your domain name in the hosts file so that it points to your new host, but only when using your computer.

Making these changes will allow you to access the files on your new host using your own domain name, while the rest of the world will still be accessing your site from the old host. This ensures 100% uptime.

The first thing you need to do is find the IP address of your new web hosting server. To find this, you need to log into your cPanel dashboard and click on expand stats link in the left-hand sidebar. Your server’s address will be listed as Shared IP Address.

On some web hosting companies you will find this information under ‘Account Information’ heading.

Finding your server's IP Address

In the next step, Windows users need to go to Programs » All Programs » Accessories, right click on Notepad and select Run as Administrator. A Windows UAC prompt will appear, and you need to click on Yes to launch Notepad with administrator privileges.

On the Notepad screen, go to File » Open and then go to C:\Windows\System32\drivers\etc. Select hosts file and open it.

Mac users will need to open the Terminal app and enter this command to edit hosts file:

sudo nano /private/etc/hosts

For both Windows and Mac users, at the bottom of the hosts file, you need to enter the IP address you copied and then enter your domain name. Like this:

Make sure that you replace the IP address with the one you copied from cPanel, and with your own domain name. Save your changes, and you can now access your files on the new host using your domain name on your computer.

Important: Don’t forget to undo the changes you made to hosts file after you have finished the migration (step 6).

Step 5: Creating MySQL Database on Your New Host

Before we run the installer on the new host, first we need to create a MySQL database on your new hosting account. If you have already created a MySQL database then you can jump to the next step.

Creating a Database in cPanel

Go to your new hosting account’s cPanel dashboard, scroll down to Databases section and click on MySQL databases icon.

MySQL Databases in cPanel

You will see a field to create a new database. Enter a name for your database, and click “Create Database” button.

Creating new database

After creating MySQL database, scroll down to MySQL Users section. Now provide a username and password for your new user and click on the ‘Create a user’ button.

Create a MySQL user

Next, you need to add user to the database. This will give the username you just created, all the permissions to work on your database.

Scroll down to ‘Add User to a Database’ section. Select the database user you created from the dropdown menu next to user, then select database, and click on the add button.

Add user to database

Your database is now ready to be used with WordPress. Be sure to make note of the database username and password.

Step 6: Begin the Duplicator Migration Process

Now we’re ready to run the installer. Navigate to this address in your browser window, replacing with your domain name:

Duplicator installer initialized

The installer will run a few tests and will show you ‘Pass’ next to archive and validation tests. Check the terms and conditions checkbox and continue by clicking on the next button.

Next, you will be asked to enter your MySQL host, database name, username, and password. Host is typically localhost, after that you will enter the details of database you created in previous step.

Connect Database

You can click on the ‘Test Database’ button to make sure you entered correct information. If duplicator is able to connect, you will see a string starting with Pass. Otherwise, you will see the database connection error details.

Click on the next button to continue.

Duplicator will now import your WordPress database from the archive zip into your new database.

Next, it will ask you to update site URL or Path. Since you are not changing domain names, you DON’T need to change anything here.

Click on the next button to continue.

Duplicator will run the final steps and will show you the login button.

Duplicator wizard finished

You can now login to your WordPress site on the new host to make sure that everything is working as expected.

Step 7: Update Your Domain

At this point, you’ve created a complete copy of your WordPress database and files on your new hosting server. But your domain still points to your old web hosting account.

To update your domain, you need to switch your DNS nameservers. This ensures that your users are taken to the new location of your website when they type your domain into their browsers.

If you registered your domain with your hosting provider, then it’s best to transfer the domain to the new host. If you used a domain registrar like GodaddyNamecheap, etc, then you need to update your nameservers.

You will need the nameserver information from your new web host. This is usually a couple of URLs that look like this:

For the sake of this guide, we will be showing you how to change DNS nameservers with GoDaddy. Depending on your domain registrar or web host, the screenshots may not reflect the setup on your registrar or web host. However the basic concept is the same.

Just look for domain management area and then look for nameservers. If you need assistance with updating your nameservers, you can ask your web hosting company.

First you need to login to your Godaddy account and then click on Domains. After that click on the manage button next to the domain name you want to change.

Manage domain

Under ‘Additional Settings’ section, click on ‘Manage DNs’ to continue.

Manage DNS

Now you need to scroll down to the Name servers section and click on the change button.

Change name servers

First you will need to switch the nameserver type dropdown from ‘Default’ to ‘Custom’ and under Nameservers fill in the your new hosting provider’s information.

Updating nameserver

Don’t forget to click on the save button to store your changes.

You have successfully changed the nameservers. DNS changes can take 4 – 48 hours to propagate for all users.

Now since you have the same content on your old host and the new host, your users wouldn’t see any difference. Your WordPress migration will be seamless with absolutely no downtime.

To be on the safe side, you can wait to cancel your old hosting account until 7 days after your migration.

Frequently Asked Questions

Here are a few questions many of our users ask while moving their websites from hosting provider to another.

1. Can I sign up for new hosting account without registering a domain name?

Yes, you can sign up for a hosting account without registering a domain name. Domain name and hosting are two different services, and you don’t necessarily need to register a domain name when signing up for new host. For more details see our guide on the difference between domain name and web hosting.

Some hosting providers will ask you to select a domain name as the first step when purchasing hosting. They will also offer you to enter a domain name if you already got one.

2. Do I need to transfer my domain name to the new host?

No, you don’t need to transfer your domain name to the new host. However, transferring your domain name to your new hosting will make it easier to renew and manage under the same dashboard as your new hosting account.

For more on this topic, see our guide on domain names and how do they work.

3. How do I fix error establishing database connection error in Duplicator?

If you are seeing error connecting to database or database connection error in Duplicator, then the most likely reason for this is that you entered incorrect information for your database connection.

Make sure that your database name, MySQL username and password are correct. Some web hosting companies do not use localhost as the host for their MySQL servers. If this is the case, then you will need to ask your web host’s support staff to provide you correct information.

4. How do I check that my site is now loading from new host?

There are several online tools that allow you to see who is hosting a website. After you have transferred your website to the new host, you can use any of these tools, and they will show you the name of the web hosting company hosting your website.

If it hasn’t been long since you migrated your website and made changes to your domain name server (DNS), then chances are that your site may still load from your old host. Domain name changes can take up to 48 hours to fully propagate.

5. Do I need to delete any files or data from old host?

When switching hosting companies, we recommend that you keep your old website for at least a week. After that, you can delete files from your old web host. If you are cancelling your account, then your web hosting provider will delete all your data according to their policy.

6. How long should I keep my account active on the old host?

Once you have migrated your website to the new host, and if you don’t have any other websites hosted with your old web host, then you can cancel your old web hosting account.

However, in some cases, you may have already paid them for yearly hosting. You should check their refund policy to see if you are eligible for any refund upon cancellation.

7. Bonus: Free Site Migration by Your New Host

If you’re looking to switch your web hosting, but the steps above sound too complicated, then you can choose the following providers, and they will migrate your website for you.

SiteGroundInMotion Hosting, and WP Engine offer free website migration for WPBeginner users.

We hope that this step by step guide helped you move WordPress to your new host with no downtime whatsoever. If you come across any issues with your WordPress migration, then check out our guide on the most common WordPress errors and how to fix them.

If you liked this article, then please subscribe to our YouTube Channel for WordPress video tutorials. You can also find us on Twitter and Facebook.



ou started your website on a platform that was popular at the time. Perhaps it was the first one that you came across. But now that you’ve used it for a while you’ve decided it no longer does what you need it to. You want to move your website to WordPress. Smart move.

WordPress is an amazing platform. So, good choice there. The problem is you have all of those articles with photos already on that other platform. You have a menu structure that your visitors like. You have categories that make sense for your website. You have subscribers. That’s a lot of items to be concerned about. Plus, you still want your visitors to feel like it’s the same site they love.

You know you want to move your site to WordPress. But the question is, how?

This article doesn’t focus on a specific platform. No matter which platform you’re using, the process is about the same. Instead, this article will show you precisely how to make the move and either keep the structure you have or improve it.

NOTE: I’m assuming you have a basic working knowledge of WordPress. If you do not, then you’ll need to set up a WordPress installation and learn the ropes before converting your old site to WordPress.

Migrating to WordPress is fiddly but you can do it!
Migrating to WordPress is fiddly but you can do it!

The Typical Migration Process

The typical conversion process from a different platform to WordPress looks like this:

  1. Evaluate your current website. This will tell you what special features you need in your new WordPress website. This includes all of your content types – pages, posts, galleries, links, etc.
  2. Set up your WordPress installation. You don’t need anything fancy yet – just WordPress installed on your domain.
  3. Import your content into your WordPress website. Simple enough, right?
  4. Set up your WordPress design. This includes your theme, colors, logo, menu structure, links, and so forth.
  5. Test and debug as needed. It’s important that your site is ready for public use before going live. This includes all links, images, media, content, menus, plugins, widgets, etc., both internal and external. I recommend using a maintenance mode plugin while the site is being tested.
  6. Go Live. This involves either moving your domain to your new host or pointing your URL to your new site.
  7. Revise as needed. Don’t assume everything will be perfect when your site goes live. It is okay to makes changes.

Evaluate Your Current Website

Knowing what you have will help you figure out what you need.

Start with a Plan

Converting a website is a big project and you want to do it right the first time. I know it sounds cliché, but you need a plan to keep this train on the right tracks. You need to know exactly what your WordPress website should look like and how it should act. You need to know what you have, what you want to keep, what you want to change, and how you want it changed.

Always start with a plan.
Always start with a plan.

You need to know the specifics of what kind of site it is and what it should do. For example, are you moving a forum, paid membership, auction, school, or online store? Obviously, each these require different features. You’ll need to know all the details so you can find the right solution for your site once it’s on WordPress.

To do this go through your old site and take an inventory of its features. Look at and make notes for items such as:

  • Menu structure
  • Forms
  • Ads
  • Content types
  • Backups
  • Security
  • Layout
  • Branding (logo and colors)
  • Special icons
  • Slider
  • Links
  • Images
  • Attachments
  • SEO
  • Multilanguage
  • E-commerce
  • Social media sharing
  • CSS

What Needs to be Converted?

Answering this question will help you determine how to perform the conversion. Go through your site and ask questions then down your answers. This will allow you to build a checklist of items that will help you design your WordPress site. Here are a few more questions you can ask:

Do you have a large site? Will all of your pages and posts be migrated into your new WordPress site? If so, then you’ll need some good tools. If you’re only migrating a few posts and pages you can migrate them by hand.

Do you need a post type other than a post or page? If so then you’ll need to create custom post types.

Are you keeping the URL and link structure? If so, will you have to customize your permalinks? If not, you’ll need to use redirects to point to your new URL’s.

Are you using tools such as stat-counters, contact forms, email and newsletter forms, and maps? Will you need to keep them? Can you keep your current tools, or will you need to find equivalent tools?

Does your site have comments? Do you want to transfer them all over to your new site?

Do you have restricted content for members-only? How do you currently implement this?

Do you sell things online?
Do you sell things online?

Do you have an e-commerce site?

Will you have to migrate to a new e-commerce solution?

Depending on your current e-commerce package, you might have to upload products, choose new shipping methods, and choose a new shopping cart that’s compatible with WordPress.

Does your site have multiple users? Many different authors, administrators, or contributors? If so, you’ll need their information in order to set up user accounts.

Your New Design

You’ll use this information to design and set up your new website. It might end up looking the same (or similar), but you have to know what you need in order to keep it the same. This information will help you create your project’s to-do list.

You’ll need:

  • Hosting
  • Domain
  • Settings
  • Theme
  • Plugins
  • Widgets
  • Menu Structure

I don’t recommend trying to make your new site a carbon-copy of your old site. I mean seriously… Why would you bother? Now’s your chance to make something better. Branding it so that it has a similar look and feel is a good idea. That lets your visitors know that it’s you (which is a good thing), but if you’re going to take the time to move it, you might as well improve it, too.

Set Up Your WordPress Installation

Next you’ll need to install WordPress on your domain or on an offline server. If you’re using the same domain you can use a new sub-directory to install WordPress to and then move the site to the original directory or point the domain that the sub-directory once the site is ready. This way your old site can remain active while you work on your new site.

WordPress Settings

Establishing baseline settings for WordPress is your step one.
Establishing baseline settings for WordPress is your step one.

Set up your permalinks, navigation structure, and user accounts.


Choose your theme and then choose your settings for your logo, favicon, and CSS styles. Some themes have lots settings built-in for menus, styles, and ad placement.

Plugins and Widgets

You’ll need new plugins for SEO, security, contact forms, maps, backups, maintenance mode, multiple languages, social sharing buttons, shortcodes, and stats. Specialized plugins, such as auctions, courses, e-commerce, real estate, and events, will require extra setup. If your old versions have export functions, such as exporting via CSV, then you can import your data into the new versions. You might not be able to port all of your content over, so this step might require extra time for setup and debugging.

Import Your Content into Your WordPress Website


Now it’s time to import your content from your old site to your WordPress site. This process takes the content from your articles and imports them into WordPress as posts.

To do the importing, you can use a script or a plugin. It’s possible that the WordPress Codex will have an importing script for your site. In your WordPress dashboard go to Tools and select Import. Here you’ll find the 8 most popular CMSs to import into WordPress. If your CMS is not here you can check the plugin directory. If a plugin is available, install the plugin and follow the instructions to import your old site into your new WordPress installation.

Importers are available for all of the major platforms including CMS and HTML coded platforms. There are also importers for WooCommerce, attachments, comments, users, media, and more.

If your platform is not on the list of plugins then you might have to upload your pages manually. For this you would create pages and posts one at a time by copying and pasting in your content. Make sure to retain your URLs and post titles. I recommend using a spreadsheet to help you keep track of titles and URLs. If you have too many articles to move manually you might consider hiring a developer to move the content for you.

NOTE: Be careful not to run the import process twice. This can cause duplicated or missing data or errors in your new database.

Plugins for Specific Platforms

If a plugin is available for your specific platform then it’s a good idea to use it. Here’s a quick look at some of the plugins that I recommend for the most popular platforms.

  • Blogger Importer

    This free plugin with import posts (including published, scheduled, and draft), categories, comments (excludes avatars), and images. It doesn’t import pages, so you’ll have to copy and paste those manually. Fortunately, most websites only have a few pages. It will also migrate authors over to WordPress users. It doesn’t import their avatars but it does support 16 languages.

    Interested in Blogger Importer?

  • Tumblr Importer

    This free plugin will import your Tumblr blog into WordPress with correct post formats. It will import posts, drafts, and pages, and it makes sure there are no duplicates. It does media side loading for your image video, and audio posts. It supports 15 languages.

    Interested in Tumblr Importer?

  • FG Joomla to WordPress

    This free plugin will migrate Joomla articles (as posts or pages), sections (as categories), categories (as sub-categories), posts (including published, unpublished, and archived), images, media, tags, and page breaks from a Joomla website into WordPress.

    This is one of the better migration tools because it does a lot more of the work for you. It modifies the post content and keeps the media links and modifies the internal links. It also has a lot of features for images. It resizes the images according to the sizes defined in your WordPress settings, uses the featured image as the first post image, keeps the image caption, and keeps the alt image attribute.

    There’s even a Premium version that migrates your Joomla SEO and adds the use of add-ons.

    Interested in FG Joomla to WordPress?

  • Weebly Importer Lite

    This one imports your Weebly posts to your WordPress site. It uses another plugin called Import External Images plugin (you must install separately) to migrate your images from Weebly’s server to yours.

    There’s a Premium plugin that moves comments and tags (as categories).

    Interested in Weebly Importer Lite?

  • TP2WP Importer

    This free plugin will import Typepad or MoveableType XML files and attachments into WordPress. It only handles post data, including titles, content, authors, comments, categories, and tags. Pages, sidebars, and other content outside of posts are not imported, so you’ll have to manually copy and paste that data.

    Interested in TP2WP Importer?

Plugins for General CSV, HTML, and XML

Another way to import is to import file-types such as CSV, HTML, and XML. This is the best way to import your files if you don’t use a common CMS platform.

  • Import any XML or CSV File to WordPress

    This one will import any XML or CSV file to WordPress as posts. It uses a simple drag and drop interface. It’s a solid but basic tool.

    To really get the best of this plugin you’ll need the Pro version which adds tons of features. It adds importing data into Custom Fields, importing images to the post media gallery, importing files from a URL, and lots more.

    Interested in Import any XML or CSV File to WordPress?

  • Import CSV with Ultimate CSV Importer

    This one will import posts, pages, custom posts and custom fields from CSV files from any app, tool, or software. It will import any WordPress post type and associated fields using a mapping feature. You can control the post status (scheduled, published, pending, draft, sticky, private, and protected).

    It supports custom post type UI plugin post types, custom fields, categories, tags, users (with roles), author, comments, and eshop.

    There’s also a Pro edition for $149.99 that supports WooCommerce with product variation, MarketPress, WP Members, All In One SEO Fields Import, WordPress SEO by Yoast Fields Import, Custom Post Type UI plugin import, and much more.

    Interested in Import CSV with Ultimate CSV Importer?

  • HTML Import 2

    This free plugin will import well-formed static HTML files into WordPress. You can specify the HTML tags or Dreamweaver template region to import. It will preserve the directory hierarchy for pages. You can import files into any post type including posts, pages, and custom post types. It will link media files to the media library. You can specify file extensions to import, directories to exclude, set tags, categories, custom taxonomies, choose the post status, author, and more. Plus it  uses meta descriptions as excerpts.

    Interested in HTML Import 2?

Set Up Your WordPress Design

Once you have all of your data moved over it’s time to set up the design of your new website. This involves getting your look and feel the way you want it.


You can make adjustments to your header in Appearance > Editor >Header. This is a good option for making modifications such as changing the height of the header. If you’re using an image for your header you can insert the URL for the image within the code. An easier option for images is Appearance > Customize, and set your image header in the menu. You might also find a plugin that will modify the header the way you want. There are several in the plugin directory that handle headers as well as footers.


You can upload your own background under Appearance > Background. This might be necessary for your branding. You might consider a plugin with special features if you want more control.


If you want to keep the same styles you can view the styles on your old site by opening your site in a browser and then right click and select View Page Source. In Google Chrome you can also select Inspect Element. Both of these tools will show you the styles of any element on the screen. You can use the hexadecimal numbers and font names to recreate the same styles in your new website. Make a note of all the styles you want to use.

Once you have your styles you can add them in the frontend or backend. For the frontend go to Appearance > Customize. Then choose Colors and Fonts, and input your numbers. For the backend go to Appearance > Editor > Stylesheet at the bottom of the page. If your theme has controls for styles then you can also input them there. Also, there are plugins to help with your styles.


You can modify the code for your footer by going to Appearance > Editor > Footer. You can use a plugin to modify your footer if you prefer not to deal with the code. I recommend adding your links to your footer. This can be done in the menu structure under Appearance > Menus on the dashboard.


You can choose to have a static homepage or a blog-style homepage. This is done in Appearance > Customize.

Custom Post Types

Some of your content might require a custom post type. You can create these yourself of use a plugin. Once you’ve created them, your importing plugin might be able to use them (it depends on the features of the plugin). If not, then you’ll have to set them manually.

Menu Structure

If you need a specified menu structure you can set it up in the Appearance settings on the dashboard. Go to Appearance > Menus and set up your custom menus for the header, footer, sidebars, and secondary menu. It is possible that you’ll like the default menu structure and won’t have to set up a custom menu, but don’t settle for it if you don’t like it. It only takes a few minutes to make the perfect menu.

Test and Debug as Needed

Before you take this puppy to the show it’s crucial that everything works the way you mean want it to. Go through your site and check everything. Check for broken links, page loading, image loading, the menu structure, buttons, redirects, 404 page, media, user names, social media links, commenting, contact forms, newsletter signups, RSS, restricted access is actually restricted, etc., etc. The more complex your site, such as auctions or e-commerce, the longer you need to spend testing. Perform speed tests and make changes as needed.

It’s helpful to get others in on the fun. Have several beta testers go through the site and make sure there are no surprises.

Build a checklist of items to look for. Make notes of all problems and tackle them one at a time. Prioritize them so the most important items are taken care of first.

NOTE: Despite all your best efforts it’s likely something will be left undone, won’t work in real life the way you imagined, or your readers will prefer something different. Don’t sweat it. This is more common than you might think. Just make note of it and chip away at it a little piece at a time.

Go Live!

Once you’ve fully tested your WordPress site and you’re sure you’re ready to go live, it’s time to make it your official site.

Before going live, make sure your readers know what’s coming. Write a post explaining what you’re doing. Once you go into maintenance mode make a note on the maintenance screen explaining why your site is down, the changes you’re making, and when your site will be back. Use a plugin and capture their email and let them follow you on social media. Communication is crucial.

There are two ways to make your new site your official site. No matter which method you choose, place your site into maintenance mode during the moving process until the site is moved and fully tested.

One method is to move the site to your server, replacing the old one. For example if you have an HTLM site on your own domain you remove the old site and replace it with your WordPress installation.

Another is to move where your domain points to. This is a good choice if you’ve placed your WordPress installation on a sub-domain of your website. You just have your URL to point to the sub-domain.

Move Your Domain to Your New Host

If you’e keeping your current host and just moving from one platform to another (for example, you’re moving from Joomla to WordPress and both are on your current hosting plan), then you won’t need to redirect your URL to a new domain.

Point Your Domain to Your New WordPress Site

This way, when people type in your URL, they’ll be taken to your new site instead of your old site. If your new WordPress site is installed on a different domain or host then you’ll need to change the name servers for your new domain. To do this you need to update your name servers for your domain.

If you used a temporary domain to set up the site make sure to remove the temporary domain after setting up the primary domain.

Importing with Plugins

There are a few plugins available that allow you to migrate your WordPress site from your server or any domain to your new host. Here’s a quick look at the best choices.

  • BackupBuddy

    With BackupBuddy you can create a WordPress website on a temporary domain or local server and then move the site complete with its theme, plugins, widgets, styles, and content, over to the live domain. You can keep the test site for development and push or pull changes as needed. It’s also a very powerful plugin for automated backups to various locations and services, so it serves more than one purpose. This is a premium plugin with four different plans.


How To Add Javascript To WordPress


How To Add Javascript To WordPress


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